About DPD Deficiency

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Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency is a disorder characterized by a wide range of severity, with neurological problems in some individuals and no signs or symptoms in others.

In people with severe dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, the disorder becomes apparent in infancy. These affected individuals have neurological problems such as recurrent seizures (epilepsy), intellectual disability, a small head size (microcephaly), increased muscle tone (hypertonia), delayed development of motor skills such as walking, and autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction. Other affected individuals are asymptomatic, which means they do not have any signs or symptoms of the condition. Individuals with asymptomatic dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency may be identified only by laboratory testing.

People with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, including those who otherwise exhibit no symptoms, are vulnerable to severe, potentially life-threatening toxic reactions to certain drugs called fluoropyrimidines that are used to treat cancer. Common examples of these drugs are 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. These drugs are not broken down efficiently by people with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and build up to toxic levels in the body (fluoropyrimidine toxicity). Fluoropyrimidine toxicity may lead to low numbers of white blood cells (neutropenia), which increases the risk of infections. It can also be associated with low numbers of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia), which impairs blood clotting and may lead to abnormal bleeding (hemorrhage). Other signs and symptoms of fluoropyrimidine toxicity include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. Redness, swelling, numbness, and peeling of the skin on the palms and soles (hand-foot syndrome) may also occur.

 

 

 

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